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Rare Earth Magnets are Used Everyday, But What Are They?

Neodymium Iron Boron Rare Earth Magnets are used everywhere and are one of the strongest permanent magnets available. But what exactly are they?

The Neodymium Magnet (also known as NdFeB, NIB or Neomagnet) is the most widely used type of Rare Earth Magnet. It is a permanent magnet which has been made from an alloy of neodymium, iron and boron to form the Nd2Fe14B tetragonal crystalline structure.

The first Neodymium Magnet was discovered in 1982 by General Motors and Sumitomo Special Metals as they investigated alternatives to the costly Samarium Cobalt Magnets. Since the discovery, the use of the Neodymium Magnet has touched everyone’s lives and can be found in items we use everyday like mobile phones, computers and even kitchen cupboard catches. They are also essential for renewable energy including wind turbines and electric
Rare Earth Magnets are Used Everyday, But What Are They?-U-Polemag
Neodymium Magnets are also help us recycle as a fundamental part of a Magnetic Separator or Eddy Current Separator as manufactured by Bunting Magnetics. The magnetic forces are used to both attract and repel metals to enable separation and recovery.

China dominates the global production of Neodymium Magnets (95%) due to the location of many of the reserves. At the end of 2010 and into 2011, the Chinese Government sent shock waves around the world when they slashed export quotas for Rare Earth Magnets and dramatically increased prices for foreign customers. It wasn’t until 2015, after China lost a World Trade Organization case brought by the USA and other trading partners, that the restrictions relaxed.

Neodymium Magnets are produced using two manufacturing methods:

• Classical powder metallurgy or sintered magnet process;

• Rapid solidification or bonded magnet process;

The Sintered magnet process produces a stronger and robust Rare Earth Magnet, but is more expensive to manufacture.

There is a enormous range of sizes and shapes of Neodymium Magnets for a diverse number of applications that continues to grow. There is no slowdown in the demand and there is only a question of supply and the price in the longer term.

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Magnetic material industry raw materials turmoil

Dear respected client

 

From October, 2020 ,most of raw materials are keeping up-trend. Herein, we published the main materials price table as below, hope that it can be helpful and draw your attention that we see the market moving up

产品名称 Production Name 规格 Specification 价格 Price (RMB) 均价AVE Price
氧化镨钕 Praseodymium-Neodymium Oxide Nd2O3>=75% 455,000-460,000 457,500
镨钕金属 Praseodymium-Neodymium Metal Nd 75-80% 565,000-570,000 567,500
氧化镝 Dysprosium Oxide >=99.5% 2,230,000-2,250,000 2,240,000
镝铁合金 Dysprosium-Iron Alloy Dy>=805 2,160,000-2,180,000 2,170,000
氧化铽 Terbium Oxide >=99.9% 8,800,000-8,850,000 8,825,000
金属铽 Metal Terbium >=99% 11,050,000-11,100,000 11,075,000
金属镧 Metal Lanthanum >=99% 28,000-29,000 28,500
金属铈 Metal Cerium >=99% 29,000-30,000 29,500
金属镨 Metal Praseodymium >=99% 625,000-635,000 630,000
金属钕 Metal Neodymium >=99% 700,000-705,000 702,500
金属钐 Metal Samarium >=99% 90,000-95,000 92,500
钆铁合金 Gadolinium Ferroalloy Gd>=75% 191,000-194,000 192,500
钬铁合金 Holmium Ferroalloy Ho>=80% 685,000-690,000 687,500
原料纯铁 Raw Materials Pure Iron YT01 6,088.9-6,000.9 6,022.90
电解铜 Electrolytic Copper 1# 59,120-59,140 59,130
电解铝 Electrolytic Aluminium A00 15,020-15,050 15,035
电解镍 Electrolytic Nickel 1# 136,600-142,100 139,350
电解钴 Electrolytic Cobalt >=99.8% 305,000-320,000 312,350
金属镓 Electrolytic Gallium >=99.99% 1,900,000-1,950,000 1,925,000
海绵锆 Zirconium Sponge >=99% 140,000-190,000 145,000
铌铁合金 Niobium Alloy 60B(65%) 185,000-190,000 187,500
硼铁合金 Ferroboron FeB18-20C0.1 21,500-23,500 22,500

Magnetic material industry raw materials turmoil-U-Polemag

Magnetic material industry raw materials turmoil-U-Polemag

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About recent magnetic material price reason

Recently, we have received same questions from downstream customers about the price increase of magnetic materials that some of them have puzzles and doubts about the problem. Therefore, we have made the following explanation with several main objective factors .

From October, 2020.China’s magnetic material industry has been affected by the international market, and the prices of bulk commodities have soared, especially the prices of rare earth, non-ferrous metals, iron ore, strontium ore and other raw materials. In addition, the multiple factors such as the domestic environmental protection concepts, cut or stop production of international iron and steel enterprises which have caused the price of magnetic materials have rocketed, and the supply is very tight.
For example, iron oxide has doubled from 2,000 CNY / ton in late last year to 4,000 CNY / ton, and in short supply now; FE-P has increased by 50% from 1,000 CNY / ton at the end of last year to 1,500 CNY / ton now; strontium carbonate has increased by 40% from 5,000 CNY/ ton to 7,000 CNY / ton now; cobalt oxide has increased by 12% from 190,000 CNY / ton to 230,000 CNY / ton, and the price of Pr Nd has also risen more than 50% . Judging from the development situation, the prices of these raw materials are still rising and stay high. The above mentioned materials are the main raw materials of magnetic products, accounting for more than 30% of the product cost, and permanent magnet products are even higher. The rising of raw materials cost from upstream will inevitably push up the price of magnetic materials. It is conservatively expected that the price will be pushed up by more than 10%, even higher. It is difficult for the industry itself to digest the rising cost of raw material prices, which needs to be absorbed in every link of the industrial chain.

About recent magnetic material price reason-U-Polemag

China’s magnetic material industry has been very mature, product costs are transparent, technology and equipment of production factors have been finalized, so the profit is small, besides, the ability to self-digest the cost of raw materials is very limited, hope customers in the industry chain need to give understanding and sympathy. Of course, for the industry and enterprises, they should also dig deeper and make some sacrifices which through fine management and the development of new processes, new technologies, and new products to digest some of the rising cost pressure of raw materials. At the same time, everyone should communicate actively, do a good job in explaining it to the clients and obtain the understanding and support, and form a consensus on overall response to the unfavorable situation caused by the increase in raw material prices, and jointly maintain the smoothly and healthy development of China’s manufacturing industry.

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Prices of magnet materials have soared

What we don’t want to see is still coming. Recently, the price of rare earth raw materials has skyrocketed, rising by 20,000-50,000 yuan per day for several days in a row, and there is a high probability that it will continue to rise sharply in the future. This rapid increase is due to cash purchase of materials and shortage of supply, so the material factory has not quoted to the public.

The following figure shows the raw material price of magnets on November 25, 2020, and the price of praseodymium metal rises by 50000 yuan per ton.

Prices of magnet materials have soared-U-Polemag

Our company is unable to bear the continuously rising material cost. We have decided that from now on (November 25th), all new and old customers need to re-calculate the magnet price before placing an order. The quotation is valid on the same day, and the payment method should be advanced on the original basis.

Thank you very much!

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Magnetism and magnetic materials

1、Magnetism and magnetic materials

2、Ferrite magnetic material

3、Samarium cobalt permanent magnetic material

4、Other magnetic materials

5、Comparison of properties of various magnetic materials

Magnetism and magnetic materials-U-Polemag

When it comes to magnetic materials, we have to talk about “magnetism” first. Experiments show that any substance can be more or less magnetized in the external magnetic field, but the degree of magnetization varies. According to their properties in the external magnetic field, substances can be divided into five categories: paramagnetic substances, diamagnetic substances, ferromagnetic substances, ferromagnetic substances, and antiferromagnetic substances:

Paramagnetic substance: a substance which, when moved closer to a magnetic field, is magnetized according to the direction of the field, but is so weak that it can only be measured by precise instruments. If the applied magnetic field is removed, the internal magnetic field will return to zero, resulting in no magnetism. Such as aluminum, oxygen, etc.

Diamagnetic substance: a substance with a negative magnetic susceptibility. When subjected to an external magnetic field, the molecule generates an induced electron circulation, which generates a magnetic moment opposite to the direction of the external magnetic field. In other words, the direction of the magnetic field after magnetization is opposite to the direction of the external magnetic field. All organic compounds are diamagnetic, graphite, lead, water, etc.

Ferromagnetic substance: it is a kind of material which is magnetized under the action of external magnetic field, and still can maintain its magnetized state even if the external magnetic field disappears. Iron, cobalt and nickel are all ferromagnetic substances.

Ferromagnetic material: macromagnetism is the same as ferromagnetism, only with a lower magnetic susceptibility. Typical ferromagnetic material is ferrite. They differ most significantly from ferromagnetic materials in their internal magnetic structures.

Antiferromagnetic substance: inside an antiferromagnetic substance, the spins of adjacent valence electrons tend to be in opposite directions. The material has a net magnetic moment of zero and produces no magnetic field. This material is less common, and most antiferromagnetic substances exist only at low temperatures. If the temperature is above a certain value, it usually becomes paramagnetic. For example, chromium, manganese and so on have antiferromagnetism.

 

We call paramagnetic and diamagnetic substances as weak magnetic substances, and ferromagnetic and ferrous magnetic substances as strong magnetic substances. The magnetic material that says normally is to point to strong magnetic material commonly. Magnetic materials can be divided into:

Soft magnetic material: the magnetic material with low coercivity and high permeability can achieve the maximum magnetization with the minimum external magnetic field. Soft magnetic materials are easy to magnetize and easy to demagnetize. For example: soft ferrite, amorphous nanocrystalline alloy.

Hard magnetic material: also called permanent magnetic material, it refers to the material that is difficult to be magnetized and difficult to be demagnetized once magnetized. Its main characteristic is that it has high coercivity, including rare earth permanent magnetic material, metal permanent magnetic material and permanent magnetic ferrite.

Functional magnetic materials: magnetostrictive materials, magnetic recording materials, magnetoresistance materials, magnetic bubble materials, magneto-optical materials and magnetic thin film materials.

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2020 shareholders’ meeting and board meeting

2020 shareholders’ meeting and board meeting-U-Polemag

On May 7, 2020 was held in the conference room of the company. The meeting deliberated and approved Total work plan for 2019 and work plan for 2020 And the management system of the company’s comprehensive implementation of the new performance appraisal method in 2020

2020 shareholders’ meeting and board meeting-U-Polemag

2020 shareholders’ meeting and board meeting-U-Polemag

In the work summary, li summarized the main work in 2019

1. The company has reversed the situation of losing money for five consecutive years since its establishment, and achieved a leap from quantitative change to qualitative change. In particular, given the complex and volatile international economic situation and the enormous downward pressure on the domestic economy, this is the most worthy of pride. The significance of this breakthrough also lies in that it strengthens the confidence of “he-chuang man” to move forward and lays the theoretical foundation for the future development of he-chuang company.

2. Development work: successfully developed and put the “composite three-disk coupler” into the market, and declared the invention patent (only available in China), paving the way for the development of high-power coupler market in the future. High power – “electric permanent magnet governor” has been running normally so far.

3, innovation management: bold launched and cloud entrusted consulting company for depth of cooperation, the meaning is: 1) assigned to for the future and create the real economy, cultivating young talents to create a “whampoa” (and the existing backbone elite as the instructor to borrow cloud entrusted consulting resources) 2) set up a good electric business of foreign trade cooperation platform, in order to and gen can borrow outside force to make up their own short board. 3) implement the new KPI performance appraisal system, practice internal skills, and lay a good management foundation for standardized development in the future.
At the same time, it also analyzes the problems and countermeasures.

2020 shareholders’ meeting and board meeting-U-Polemag

In the work plan for 2020, li pointed out:
The year 2020 should have been the first year of the rapid development of heshuang. The trend of the first year will directly affect the speed and quality of the future. Therefore, 2020 is an important year. However, this sudden outbreak has brought us a lot of uncertainties. However, we have the courage to face the difficulties and survive.

Combined with the course of 2019 and the current situation of our company, the strategy of 2020 is adjusted to “two squatting, one jumping and eight guaranteed”. The so-called “two squatting” for the performance of rammed magnetoelectricity and magnetic transmission. Tamping the internal production, technology and market of magnetoelectricity and magnetic transmission will pave the way for the company to take off in the next two years.
The specific requirements and work plan are as follows:
1. Management innovation: completely break the existing way of thinking, management mode and assessment and incentive methods, abandon martial arts and actively embrace reform. On the current situation to make the necessary “broken, broken, presentation” amplification, aims to make full use of new ideas, new management tools, and new system, to maximize light the cadres and staff’s working enthusiasm, activate their cells, get through their promotion channels, play to their talents, and make their career and gen into together. At present, it has carried out in-depth cooperation with “cloud trust” company. The contents include: the construction of new management mode, the reconstruction of post management (responsibility, assessment program, salary plan), technical promotion (internal business college, special training camp) and the establishment of promotion system.

2. Marketing management: the focus of foreign trade is the reform of performance management. Domestic sales focus on the rapid establishment and actual operation of the agent management system; On the other hand, to strengthen the marketing force, the company plans to increase efforts to expand the marketing team in 2020. It also plans to split marketers into developers and maintainers starting in 2020. Developers are fully responsible for the development of new business and new customers, and maintenance personnel are fully responsible for the merchandiser of old business.

3. Strengthening technological innovation:

A. especially the magnetic drive. On the one hand, we can serialize and standardize the new products that have been basically fixed as soon as possible, so as to facilitate market promotion and cost control. Our goal is to make the products with the best cost performance, and get ready for the revolutionary change of mechanical transmission. We will seize this historic opportunity.

B. On the other hand, define the existing basically finalized products as version 1.0, and immediately lay out version 2.0, that is, upgrade the products with automatic control and remote control, and make appropriate adjustments in the profit model, from selling products gradually to selling services at the same time.

To provide customers with an overall solution to the problem, that is, the operation of the equipment management can be taken over.

C. On the other hand, the existing products should be highly mechanized and automated. So that we can improve production efficiency and improve the ability of orders, reduce production cost, improve competitiveness, at the same time can unlock China’s current population dividend disappear after skilled workers is hard to find, for enterprises to lay a solid foundation for sustainable development (specific grades punch automatic drawing, the magnetization, electrical automatic production automation transformation, to enhance the efficiency of magnetic drive testing room, etc.).

4. Pay attention to the protection of intellectual property rights, image publicity and power marketing. Combined with product research and development, constantly explore innovative points, timely declaration of patents and new product identification. Suggestion: apply for the first set and new product identification of three-disk complex coupler, electro-permanent magnet, etc.

5. Increase investment in technology development and continue to cooperate with colleges and universities and research institutions to ensure the leading position of technology in the industry. The company plans to set up the second department of development in 20 years, and cooperate with nanhua university to introduce and train graduate students of related majors, so as to enable and create development.

2020 shareholders’ meeting and board meeting-U-Polemag

Finally, li always stressed that only success can prove our value and only achievement can prove our efforts. I hope you can ignite the spark of your wisdom and ignite your inner passion. With their own blood and youth to create their own bright future, and create with the advance and retreat; With the conduct of the old cattle, the momentum of the horse, only seize the day, live up to the youth to jointly complete the next year and the future goals and tasks, to achieve the same goal, the same dream!

2020 shareholders’ meeting and board meeting-U-Polemag

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What is the NdFeB infiltration technology?

Since its introduction in the 1980s, NdFeB permanent magnet materials have been widely used in various fields such as automobiles, wind power, aerospace, and military industries with excellent magnetic properties. In recent years, the demand for wind power generation, new energy vehicles, etc. has continued to increase. This puts forward higher requirements for the coercive force and temperature stability of NdFeB permanent magnet materials.

Because the magnetic crystal anisotropy field of the Dy2Fe14B phase is much stronger than that of the Nd2Fe14B phase and the Curie temperature is relatively high, the coercivity and temperature stability of the material can be greatly improved. In sintered NdFeB materials, the content of rhenium is very high, and some can reach more than 10%. Everyone knows that the price of heavy rare-earth element europium is high, and a large amount of addition will increase the production cost of neodymium iron boron. Therefore, how to reduce the amount of europium under the premise of ensuring high coercivity and temperature stability has become an important issue.

What is the NdFeB infiltration technology?-U-Polemag

What is the NdFeB infiltration technology?-U-Polemag

The traditional element addition method is to add in the melting process, that is, Dy, Tb and Nd, Fe, B and other elements are smelted together, Dy distribution in the grain boundary and the main phase of the grain in the magnet. However, research shows that Dy at the grain boundary has the most significant effect on improving the coercive force, and the traditional method of adding elements is a “waste of resources”.

Japanese researchers first proposed the concept of “grain boundary diffusion”. They used a special process to make Dy exist only at the grain boundary and not enter the crystal by diffusion. This not only improved the performance of NdFeB materials, but also greatly reduced Dy. The total amount of elements reduces the cost of materials. They deposited Dy vapor on the surface of the particles during the milling process, and Dy atoms diffused along the grain boundaries during subsequent sintering. Dy and Fe located at the grain boundary are antiferromagnetically coupled, and the coercive force of the material increases from 800 kA / m to 1800 kA / m with almost no reduction in remanence.

Damage to the surface of the magnet after machining will weaken the magnetic properties, especially for small-size samples, the coercivity is significantly reduced, and grain boundary diffusion technology can be used to repair and increase the magnetic surface magnetic properties. At present, the grain boundary diffusion technology has received widespread attention, and its preparation processes mainly include evaporation diffusion, magnetron sputtering, surface coating, and the like.

Evaporation diffusion

The Dy / Tb evaporation process on the surface of the neodymium-iron-boron magnet is to place the heavy rare earth element or its compound and the original sample to be processed in a steaming furnace, and use high temperature heating to evaporate the heavy rare earth element at high temperature. It is deposited on the surface of the original magnet and diffuses into the magnet along the grain boundary.

The evaporation diffusion method can simultaneously perform sublimation of Dy evaporation source, deposition on the surface of neodymium-iron-boron, and diffusion in the magnet under the condition of high temperature heating. The advantage of using the evaporation diffusion method is to diffuse heavy rare-earth elements. It is more sufficient to reduce the amount of heavy rare-earth elements and reduce the cost, thereby successfully preparing a high coercivity and low rare-earth content neodymium-iron-boron magnet.

Magnetron sputtering

Unlike the evaporation diffusion method described above, magnetron sputtering separates the Dy deposition process from the diffusion process. It deposits Dy on the surface of the original magnet by physical sputtering, and then performs high temperature diffusion. Magnetron sputtering has the advantages of uniform film thickness and obvious coercive force enhancement effect.

Some research experiments have shown that after sintered and tempered N35 magnets are treated with sputtering Dy, the coercive force is greatly improved when the remanence is reduced by only 0.009T and 0.03T, which are increased by 708.44kA / m and 665.46, respectively. kA / m, the increase rate is as high as 73.5% and 64.8%, and the average mass fraction of Dy element of the magnet after Dy infiltration does not increase by more than 0.4%. After infiltrating the Dy-treated magnet, Dy is enriched in a continuous band at the Nd-rich phase, which makes the Nd-rich phase more continuous and smooth. The improvement of the Nd-rich phase structure and morphology is one of the reasons for the increase in coercive force. The (Nd, Dy) 2Fe14B epitaxial layer formed has a large magnetic crystal anisotropy field, and the hardening of the grain epitaxial layer can better suppress the reverse domain nucleation, which is also the main reason for the increase of coercive force.

Surface coating

The surface coating method refers to coating a rare earth compound directly on the surface of the original magnet sample, and performing a high-temperature heat treatment diffusion in a rare gas atmosphere after drying treatment. Using this method can significantly improve the coercive force of the magnet, the advantage is that the process is simple and convenient, the disadvantage is that it is easy to cause uneven coating and insufficient diffusion.

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Merry Happy New year 2020

My Dear Friend,

In the new year, may you take off your fatigue and invigorate your spirits; forget the sadness of the year and equip yourself with joy; shake off all the depression and carry your vitality with you; may you bathe in the sunshine of friendship and move forward bravely .

Merry Happy New year 2020

All the best,

U-polemag

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What is Laminated Magnet or Lamination Magnet?

Eddy current is one of the biggest difficulties in the motor industry which will give rise to the temperature of permanent magnets and caused demagnetization, then affected the working efficiency of the motor. We named it “Eddy Current Loss of Permanent Magnets”

What is Laminated Magnet or Lamination Magnet?-U-Polemag

In most cases, the eddy current loss of permanent magnets is much lower than iron loss and copper loss of the motor, but it will generate a large temperature rise in the high-speed motor and the high power density motor.

Ideally, rotor magnetic field and stator magnetic field of PMSM are rotating synchronously, or relatively static, thus permanent magnets without eddy current loss in such case. In fact, there are a series of space and time harmonics are existing in the air gap magnetic field, and these harmonic components are stemming from cogging effect, non-sinusoidal distribution of magnetomotive force and phase current. The harmonic magnetic field will link with rotor magnetic field and hence generated eddy current and caused relevant eddy current loss. It should be also noted that the harmonic magnetic field and eddy current loss will rise with increasing motor speed.

Laminated magnets are regarded as a wise solution to solve the eddy current loss in the surge of high-speed rotating machinery development.

What is Laminated Magnet or Lamination Magnet?-U-Polemag

Laminated magnets are made by bonding several pieces of thin magnets together via special isolation glue which also be called magnet segmentation technology, and thus dramatically reduce the eddy flux loss of the magnets without changing the structure and performance of the motors. Actually, puzzles existing in the development of laminated magnets are the assembly process and consequently high costs. U-Polemag has collected much experience via some axial flux motor projects.

Welcome to inquiry us for more information,and we will try our best to offer you the best service.

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